| Introduction | Key
Dates | Chronogram of Ecuador's History
The first phase Ecuador's history began somewhere between
15,000 and 20,000 BC with the rise of indigenous societies in what is
now Ecuador. These peoples had developed social organizations with their
own beliefs, rites, and ceremonies and an economy based primarily on hunting,
gathering, and agriculture. Traces of their existence can be found in
archaeological sites located all across Ecuador. This era, which can be
divided into four periods (Paleo-Indian or Pre-ceramic, Formative, Regional
Development, Integration, and Incan), lasted until the arrival of the
Spanish Conquistadores in the XVI century.
Key Dates in Ecuador's History
|10000 - 3600 B.C.
||Human societies develop
living on hunting, fishing, and gathering.
|3600 - 1800 B. C.
||Early Formative Period
to develop, subsiding on hunting, fishing, and rudimentary agricultural
|1800 - 1500 B. C.
||Mid Formative Period
||More extensive agricultural
production begins to develop.
|1500 - 500 B. C.
||Late Formative Period
||As agricultural pratices
are refined and become more heavily relied upon, the economy shifts
towards an agrarian model.
|500 B.C. - 500 A.D.
increasingly important and urban development increases.
|500 - 1500 A.D.
to spread and become increasingly important. Society becomes more
||Organization and expansion
||Tupac Yupanqui begins
the conquest of the Andean.
is proclamed Inca.
||Tahuantinsuyo is divided
between Atahualpa and Huáscar.
||Conquest of Quito
Benalcázar begins the Conquest of Quito.
||Audiencia of Quito
||Felipe II issues a
Cédula Real creating the Real Audiencia and Cancillería
of San Francisco of Quito.
||Details & Other
|1809 - 1812
||Revolution of Quito
||Independence was declared but not obtained.
|1820 - 1822
||Independence: final stage.
||The patriotic forces are finally victorious.
||Formation of Gran Colombia.
||Ecuador becomes part of Gran Colombia
with the name Distrito del Sur.
||Dissolution of Gran Colombia.
||The independent state called
Ecuador is formed. Republican life begins in the country.
of Ecuador's History
Organization of the Incas (1.000 AD)
The Central highlands of the Andes was the seat of the Inca empire. It
stretched from the south of Colombia to the north of Chile, over an area
of more than four thousand square kilometers, across a land known as Tahuantinsuyo.
The Incas were thus made up of a vast population of dozens of different
ethnic groups with their own languages, customs and economies based on
cultivation of the land. In Ecuador, these people spread out along the
Andes, occupying some coastal regions and exercising a significant influence
Arrival of the Spanish and the end of Tahuantinsuyo (1532)
In 1532 the downfall of Tahuantinsuyo began with the imprisonment of Atahualpa.
Heavy fighting took place between the Europeans and the Incas, who resisted
the conquest. For the Spanish, America represented a land full of riches,
taken in the name of the Crown. Francisco Pizarro and Diego de Almagro
were the main protagonist of the time and conquered the native people
in a bloody manner. The Europeans used a variety of strategies, among
which was indoctrination and the use of rival Indian chiefs.
The Audiencia of Quito in the Colony
The Real Audiencia de Quito was established in 1563, as an administrative
area dependent on the Spanish Crown. It covered the area to the north
as far as Pasto, Popayán, Cali, Buenaventura and Buga, currently
in Colombia, and to Piura, in Peru, to the south. Its first President
was the Spaniard Hernando de Santillán. From its beginning until
the XVIII century, the Audiencia de Quito was part of the Viceroyalty
of Peru. It was then under orders of the Viceroyalty of Nueva Granada,
which had its seat in Santa Fe, until, after the latter was suspended,
it again became a dependency of the Viceroyalty of Peru. However, later,
King Felipe V decided to return it to la Nueva Granada, after this Viceroyalty
was reestablished. Judicially and socially,la Audiencia de Quito had to
follow the Viceroyalty of which it was part.
Political and administrative situation at the end of the XVIII century
Lack of confidence was part of colonial life due to the ambiguous situation
in which the Audiencia de Quito existed. The Marquis of Selva Alegre (1753)
centralized the state and established a monopoly on alcohol and tobacco.
For this reason the famous Rebellion of the Estancos took place , to which
other native uprisings were added. Administrative reorganizations were
made which allowed greater income for the state. At the end of the XVIII
century Luis Francisco Héctor, Baron of Carondelet, occupied the
Presidency. He gained more power for Quito such as control of the Superintendancy
of the Real Hacienda and the creation of a Capitanía General.
Rupture with the Colony and Independence
Social decadence sped up in the second half of the XVIII century. Historians
attribute various factors to the fall of the colonial system. One of them,
the end of production of silver in Potosi. Textile making decreased significantly.
The power of the private elite was also limited by reforms which were
introduced. Independence came about between the end of the XVIII century
and the early decades of the XIX century. This was caused by a number
of factors, external and internal. One of them being the influence of
the French Revolution in the region.
After Independence, the three most important cities, Quito, Guayaquil
and Cuenca, were incorporated into Gran Colombia in 1822, at different
times. Bolívar assumed the Presidency of this new nation made up,
in addition, of Venezuela and Nueva Granada. With the aim of administrative
organization the territory was divided into the departments of Venezuela,
Cundinamarca and Quito. But the integration of these peoples aroused resistance
and problems due to personal interests and ambitions throughout the process,
which contributed to its disintegration.
Formation of the Republican State
After the collapse of Gran Colombia, the Republic of Ecuador was created
in 1830. Since them political conflict has characterized life in the Republic.
The new State was unable to integrate the different regions. The mountain
region and the coast developed in different ways. Also, autonomous local
bodies formed which entered into conflict with the state and which, in
addition, administered their own resources. Neither was there a unified
currency, which seriously affected the existence of a central power.
| Introduction | Key
Dates | Chronogram of Ecuador's History